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The Czech Republic

Basic facts and geography

    The Czech Republic is a state in Central Europe. It occupies an area of 78.864 km2 and it has a population about 10, 3 million inhabitants. Our state is surrounded by the Šumava, the Czech Forest, the Ore Mountains, the Jizerské Mountains, the Giant Mountains and the Eagle Mountains. The Moravian Plain is protected on the West by the Bohemia-Moravian Highland and on the North by the wooded mountainous ranges of Jeseníky and Beskydy. Fertile lowlands can be found in the valleys of the big rivers, the Vltava, the Elbe (following into the North Sea), the Oder (following into the Baltic Sea) and the Morava (following into the Danube and then into the Black Sea)    . The climate is mostly continental; the warmest areas are in South Moravia.
    One of our most important raw materials is the coal. The black coal and anthracite are to be found in the Ostrava Coal Basin and in the Kladno. The brown coal and lignite are in the North Bohemia Coal Basin and in Western Bohemia in the Sokolov Basin. We have also minor deposits of iron ore, uranium and oil. We have also rich deposits of kaolin and clay which is very important for our glass and ceramic industry. The Czech Republic is industrial country especially we are focused on the engineering industry. Beside this we have also chemical, textile and food industry. Our agriculture is developed enough to supply the people
and to export too.
    The Slavonic tribes came about 5th century A.D.  The first state was the Sámo’s empire established in 623. The first mighty feudal state was Great Moravia Empire in the 9th century. The first historically documented Czech prince was Bořivoj I. The Czech princes, later kings played very important role in the development of the Europe. When the Přemyslid dynasty died after sword in 1306 the throne went in the form of wedding to the Luxembourgs. During their rule the country rose on the importance. One of the most famous Czech kings was Charles IV. During his rule Prague became a centre of Europe. It was the centre of culture, education and trade. In 1348 he established Charles University in Prague.
    The reign of Wenceslas IV. is connected with the Hussite Movement John Hus wanted the reformation of the church and the died on the stake as a heretic on 6th June 1415. The main leaders of the movement were John Žižka, Prokop Holý, who fought over many crusades against the Hussite movement.
    George of Poděbrady also called “Hussite king” was very good diplomat and he tried to unite Europe against the Turkish danger. After his rule the Jagiellonians, Hapsburg dynasty took over the throne to the end of the 19th century. The best known sovereign was Rudolf II., who re-established the Prague’s importance. He was a fierce collector of an art so Prague became the centre of culture during his rule. But the reign caused that Czech language was oppressed and nation went through the germanization.
    19th century brought a time of national revival and after the World War I. on 18th October was established Czechoslovak Republic. But the state was almost destroyed by the Hitler’s occupation after the Munich act from 29th September 1938. After the Nacism was defeated on 8th May 1945 the county was innovated in his original form. Next shock for the nation was the Soviet occupation in 1968. The forty rule of the Communism ended The Velvet revolution on 17th November 1989. The country was divided into The Czech and Slovak Republic 1st January 1993.
National symbols
Emblem – Checked Eagle – Moravia; Black Eagle – Slezsko; two two tails lions
Anthem – “Kde domov můj” – from the opera Fidlovačka – J.K.Tyl and song written by F. Škroup
Flag –  Blue field – justice
Red field - blood
White field - peace

National currency is crown.

Political system
    The Czech Republic is sovereign, united and democratic state. The government is divided into the tree branches – legislative represented by the Parliament, executive represented by president and the government and judicial represented by courts of various levels.
    The Parliament has two chambers – the Chamber of Deputies and the senate. The Chamber of Deputies has 200 members elected every four years and the Senate has 81 Senators and after each 2 years is one third of Senators renewed. They are responsible for making and passing laws. Before the law is passed it have to go through the Chamber of Deputies then the Senate and in the end President has to sign it.
    The President is elected every five by the Parliament, but no more then twice. He has the function as the national representant, but he is also commander-in-chief of army. He asks the leader of the most successful party to create the government, he appoints the judges and he has the right to declare amnesty.
    The judicial power is divided into a system of courts. The basic is Constitutional court and the highest is the Supreme Court.
    The most important parties are The Social Democratic party, Civic Democratic Party, Civic Democratic Union, the Christian Democratic Party and the Czech-Moravian Communist party.

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