Hledejte v chronologicky řazené databázi studijních materiálů (starší / novější příspěvky).


1)    Basic facts + Geography
2)    History
3)    National symbols
4)    Places of interest

    Ireland also known as the Emerald isle is politically divided into Northern Ireland and The Republic of Ireland. The Republic of Ireland consists of Munster, Connaught, Lienster, totalling 23 counties and 3 counties are in Ulster. The area of the island is about 83700 km2 and The Republic of Ireland is about 70000 km2. The population of Ireland is about 5, 5 million inhabitants. The capital city is Dublin, which means Dark Pool, because of the dark water in the river Liffey on which is Dublin situated. The head of the state is President.
    The landscape of the island can be described as basin-shaped. That means the mountains are around the central plain. The main physiographic features are the region of lowlands occupying central and east central sections and a system of mountain ranges in the south. The highest mountain is Carrantuohill located in the south-western part of the island.  Its total height is 1041 m
    On the green plains are situated many rivers and lakes. Because of the large areas of the green grass is Ireland also called “Green Island”. The most important rivers are the Erne and the Shannon. Nearly half of the Shannon River is made by loughs Allen, Ree and Derg.
    The climate of Ireland is moderate, because of the moist winds from the Atlantic Ocean.

    One of the first inhabitants of Ireland were Celts, exactly the Wise Druids. There were Celtic priests. In about 300 B.C. was the island conquered by Celts from France, the Galls.
About seven hundred years later in 432 A.D. St. Patrick came and attempt to convert people to the Christianity. The golden era of Ireland was between 5th and 6th centuries. It was time of rapid development.
    Everything had changed when Henry VIII. brought the Protestant religion. The Catholics were not allowed to vote, to get married, to educate and to buy the land. In 1801 Ireland joined to the British Parliament. To sit in the Parliament was too disallowed to the Catholics. Between years 1845 and 1849 about a million of people died from famine and other million immigrated to United States. That was caused by the failure of potato crops.
    The Sinn Fein started in 1899 and it became a political party in 1805. They wanted Ireland to be equal partner with Britain in dual monarchy. However the movement absorbed many radical elements it became the most important nationalistic party in the country.
    The year 1922 was one of the most important years. The Independent State of Ireland was created and in the year 1949 it was renamed to the Republic of Ireland and it was also the year of leaving the Commonwealth.  
    The flag contains three colours – green, white and orange
Green symbolises the Catholics and the landscape
Orange symbolises the Protestants
White symbolises the peace and understanding between them

The emblem of Ireland is the Shamrock, which is the symbol of Christianity. It also symbolises the Holy Trinity (the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit).
The anthem 

The Hill of Tara

    The Hill of Tara, in north-eastern Ireland, has been a sacred place since ancient times. The earliest feature is a Neolithic passage grave dating from about 2800 BC. The two circular earthworks in the centre of the mound are ring forts. Up to about AD 560, the hill was the seat of the kings of Ireland.

The Blarney Castle

    Blarney Castle in County Cork, Ireland, was built in 1446 on the site of an earlier castle dating from the 13th century. The castle was the stronghold of the MacCarthy family until their defeat by Oliver Cromwell in 1646. Although it was restored to the MacCarthys in the reign of Charles II, it was sold to the governor of Cork in 1703. The castle is associated with the popular legend of the Blarney Stone, which is said to confer the gift of eloquence (výmluvnost)  on those who kiss it.

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