Hledejte v chronologicky řazené databázi studijních materiálů (starší / novější příspěvky).


1)    Basic facts (Basic info, Transport, Industry and commerce)
2)    History
3)    Fact and Places of interest

    London is a capital of both England and the United Kingdom. It is seat of the Monarch, the Parliament, the Government and the Supreme Court and it is home about 9 million people. It lies on the river Thames which is very important transport artery.
     The main exports are cars, machinery, chemical and electrical goods. The mean of transport connected with the river are riverbuses which run on the river Thames too. There are five airports in the London area. The largest is Heathrow. The quickest and the cheapest transport is by famous London’s underground often called “tube”. The London’s underground is the world’s oldest. Other important kinds of transport are taxis and the buses.
    London is one of the centres of the world’s trade. Twenty-two percents of the world’s transactions take place in London. The London Stock Exchange is the world’s biggest.
    The Celts settled the territory of today’s London at about 800 B.C. The Romans had occupied the land in 55 and later in 43 B.C. and they established Londonium. When the Romans left the Londonium remained the capital of the Britons. It kept the importance until the time of coming William the Conqueror in 1066, who moved the royal court to Winchester.
The city continued to grow and in the 16th century the establishment of the trading companies and the Royal exchange contributed to the rapid economic rise of London. 
    The 17th century brought much suffering. In 1665 more than 75,000 people died from a plague epidemic and later in 1666 the Great Fire of London destroyed four fifths of the city.
Christopher Wren was appointed the main architect to rebuild the city. His masterpiece is St. Paul’s Cathedral.
    During the 19th century the London’s port became the biggest in London. Queen Victoria became a sovereign and the face of the city had changed. Many public buildings sprang up including main part if the Houses of Parliament, the Covent Garden Opera House and the Crystal Palace. Many buildings from that time have typical Victorian style of the red bricks.
    German bombing during the WWII caused many damages especially in the City, but they can’t be noticed now days.
Tower of London
    William the Conqueror started Tower of London after his triumph in 1066. Tower of London was built to oppress and frighten the English. In the prison were kept enemies of the king sometimes very famous e.g. Sir Walter Raleigh, Guy Fawkes and as well as Rudolf Hess (Hitler’s deputy). In the execution block were beheaded two of Henry’s VIII. wives (Ann Boleyn, Catherine Howard) and famous philosopher Thomas Moor.
    The oldest part of Tower of London is The White Tower, which was the residence of the king. The walls of the White Tower are sometimes almost 5 metres thick. In the Jewellery House there are embedded the Crown Jewels. The warders of The Tower of London are the Yeoman Warders incorrectly called Beefeaters, which are dressed in the traditional uniforms from the days of Tudors. Six raves are kept there to protect the Kingdom. The legend says that the Kingdom will cease to exist when the ravens leave the Tower. The old Ceremony of the Keys is still performed nightly when the main gate is locked.

Tower Bridge
    It is the most famous and distinctive bridge in the London. The bridge rise up when the ship wants to pass through under it.

St. Catherine’s Dock
    The dock was finished in 1828. For many centuries it was a trade place and now days it has been transformed into the museum of historical ships.

St. Paul’s Cathedral
    It was built by Christopher Wren and it is his masterpiece. It took 35 years to finish it.
The Cathedral is built in the Baroque style. Inside the dome along the Copula runs the Whispering Gallery. If you whisper something the person on the other side can hear you. It is the place where many famous occasions took place. (Wedding of Price Charles and Princess Diana, funeral of Sir Winston Churchill...) and Britain heroes are buried there (Admiral Nelson, the Duke of Wellington and Sir Christopher Wren…).
The Houses of Parliament
    It is the political centre of the United Kingdom and home of the British Parliament. Great Britain with its House of Lords and House of Commons is the oldest democracy in the world. The parliamentary system has its roots in the Magna Charta Libertatum form 1215. The House of Lords is a gothic hall decorated in red with a throne of the Sovereign and the seat of The Lord Chancellor who presides the House. The House of Commons consists of the parallel rows of the green leather benches. The House of Commons is presided by The Speaker.
    Next to the buildings of The Parliament rises a clock called Big Ben. Big Ben is name of the bell, which was named by his creator.

Westminster Abbey
    It is the most important church in the country. Monarchs are crowned and heroes buried there. The Coronation Chair made in 1300 includes the Stone of Scone which had been stolen from Scotland and returned in 1996.
    In the Poet’s Corner are the tombstones of many famous poets such as John Milton, Lord Byron and William Shakespeare), but only few of them are buried there (Geoffrey Chaucer and Robert Browning).

Buckingham Palace
    It is the London home of the Kings and the Queens. Other homes are Windsor Castle and St. James Palace. It was built by Duke if Buckingham and bought by George III. The Queen Victoria was the first monarch who lived there. The Royal family occupies the north wing of the Palace. Queen Victoria Monument is in front of the Palace.

Trafalgar Square
    It is the largest place in London and it’s also place of traffic jams and political demonstrations. In the centre of the square stands The Nelson’s Column, which commemorates the famous victory of Admiral Nelson at the Spanish Cape Trafalgar in 1805.
The Column is surrounded by two fountains and many pigeons which are inseparable part of the square.

National Gallery
    National Gallery forms one side of the square. There is one of the greatest collections of the western paintings. There are paintings of many masters. It could be mentioned some of them. (Leonardo da Vinci, Tizian, El Greco, Rembrandt, van Gogh…).

    London is known as a city of parkland and gardens. Here are some of them.
St. James Park is the oldest one. The exclusive street The Mall separates the Park from St. James Palace, which is another residence of the Royal family.
    The Hyde Park is the most popular among the tourists. The main entrance to the Park is the Hyde Park Corner. In the North-east corner of the park stands the Marble Arch.
    The Hyde Park continues by Kensington Gardens. There stands Albert Memorial and Kensington Palace. Facing the Albert Memorial is the Royal Albert Hall.
    Regent’s Park is the most elegant park in London for its attractive gardens, lakes and zoo.

    The best place for shopping is the Oxford Street with very famous shops such as Harrods, Selfridges and Marks and Spencer.
    In the Regent Street there is one of the most famous shops with the toys in the world, the Hamley’s. At the other hand the Bond Street is famous for its art galleries, jewellery shops and there is the famous auction house, Sotheby’s.
    Covent Garden is the best place to buy some fruit and vegetable.

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