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19 System of education in our country - The Czech Republic, Great Britain and the USA

The Czech Republic
     In our country, education is compulsory for all children from the age of 6 to 15. There are also some pre-school institutions: cr?ches for little children up to 3 years, then nurseries or kindergartens, where the children can play with toys, sing or go for a walk.
     At the age of 6 the child starts to attend primary school.(also basic or elementary school). From 1st to 5th class there is only one teacher for all subjects and the pupils learn reading, writing, counting, drawing and so on. They have few subjects and short lessons. From 6th to 9th class the pupils have more subjects and usually different teachers for different subjects. They learn Czech language, Maths, foreign languages (English, German, French, Russian), Geography, History, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Physical education and others. After finishing basic school, the children take the entrance exams to secondary schools.
     It can be a secondary grammar school (“gymnázium”) for students who want to study at university or a secondary school with technical or commercial specialization. After four years at a secondary school (usually at the age of 19), the students take the leaving examination in 4-5 subjects (one of them is usually optional). Most of these exams consist of written and oral parts. The leaving exams of students at the Technical Secondary School of Engineering must be taken in engineering technology or machine construction and operation - students with specialization of general engineering have both subjects, the others have different subject according to their specialization (for example information systems). The next two subjects are Czech language and literature, and then mathematics or foreign language. The future secretaries in engineering have economics and accounting.
    After secondary school students can apply for university and they must take entrance exams for university they want to study. In Brno there is the Technical University of Brno and Masaryk University which has many faculties - for example the Faculty of Art, the Faculty of Science, Medicine, Law and so on. The oldest university in the Czech Republic is Charles University in Prague founded in the 14th century.
    In the USA education is under control of each state and there are variations in different states. Most 14-year-old children move from elementary school to high school (synonym for our secondary school). After passing graduation exams (mostly written) at the age of 18 they get High School Diplomas. Before applying for a university, the students from low-standard schools can go to junior colleges, which prepare them for entrance exams required by colleges (these provide courses which lead only to Bachelor Degrees) or universities (courses leading to both Bachelor and higher degrees). The oldest university is Harvard near Boston, founded in 1636. American colleges and universities compete in sports and provide good conditions (and scholarships) for good sportsmen (athletes, football players and others). Private schools and universities are very expensive and many students work during their studies to pay for their education.
Great Britain
    At the age of 11, the children go to a secondary school. It may be a grammar school, which is selective, or many more secondary schools are comprehensive - providing general education in 3 basic subjects (English, mathematics and science), and 7 other subjects. Comprehensive schools are non-selective (they are no entrance tests), and mostly free of charge (students don't have to pay for it). There are also some so called public schools which are private (that's why expensive) and have a good reputation - for example Eton.
    Students can leave school at 16 when they take leaving exam and they get General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE). Those who want to continue at university usually stay at their secondary school until 18 and they take Advanced level exams (“A” levels). There are 47 universities in Great Britain, the oldest ones are Oxford and Cambridge.

Describe our school and equipment in the classrooms. Which subjects are taught at our school?
What would you like to do after your leaving exam?

compulsory povinný pass the exam projít zkouškou
crech?s jesle require vyžadovat
nursery; kindergarten mateøská škola conditions podmínky
attend navštìvovat (školu) scholarship stipendium
take the exam dìlat zkoušku subject školní pøedmìt
entrance exam pøijímací zkouška comprehensive school brit. všeobecná støední škola
leaving exam maturitní zkouška public school brit. soukromá støední škola
apply for pøihlásit se na free of charge zdarma

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