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The Czech Republic

 The Czech Republic is a small country in central Europe. It had been part of the larger Czechoslovakia for over 70 years, but Slovakia separated in 1993, so our republic became independent too. Our republic consists of three historical parts - Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia. There were many famous personalities in the history of our nation - for example the king Charles IV., John Hus (a religious reformer), Jan Amos Komenský (wrote books for teachers) or T.G. Masaryk ( the first president  of Czechoslovakia).
                   Our neighbours are Poland in the north, the Slovak Republic in the east, Austria in the south and Germany in the west. The area of our republic is about 79 000 square kilometers and its population about 10 million people. The countryside of the Czech republic is very varied: there are hills, valleys, plains, lowlands. The mountains form a natural borderline around the country. The highest peak, Snìžka, is in the Giant mountains. Other beautiful mountain ranges are for example Šumava, Jeseníky, Orlické hory and so on. There are several karst regions with remarkable caves. In the Moravian Karst there is the Macocha abbys and the underground river Punkva. The longest rivers are the Elbe, which flows into the North sea, the Vltava river and the Morava. Several dams were built on the rivers, forming large reservoirs (e.g. Lipno, Orlík, Nové Mlýny). There are only few natural lakes in the Czech Republic, but in South Bohemia there are many ponds - such as Rožmberk, Svìt or Bezdrev. All around the country there are many mineral springs and around them spas have developed. We have four national parks for example in the Giant mountains or in Šumava and many nature reserves. Our republic lies on the border between oceanic and continental climate - so the weather is quite hot in summer and cold and snowy in winter. Fortunately, there are no tornadoes or earthquakes, but there are sometimes floods.
The Czech Republic is very densely populated. There are all types of settlement: cities, towns, villages and isolated places. The biggest city is Prague with more than 1 million inhabitants. Other important cities are Brno, Ostrava or Olomouc. Historical towns that attract many tourists are Èeský Krumlov or Telè with their beautiful sights. We can also admire the beauty of Czech castles and chateaus - very famous are Karlštejn, Hluboká or Lednice.
Lowlands near the river Elbe or in South Moravia are fertile regions suitable for agriculture. Our agricultural products are for example wheat, corn, potatoes or wine. South Moravia is well-known for its production of wine and there are many wine cellars. Our country is poor in mineral resources. In the Middle Ages there were gold, silver, iron, uranium, but nowadays there is only coal mining (near Ostrava and Kladno) and the other raw materials must be imported. There are two nuclear power stations (Dukovany, Temelín) which supply people and industry with electricity. Traditional industries are engineering and mining, but more and more people work in services (banks, insurance companies etc.).
Our republic is a democratic country. The head of state is a president, elected for 5 years and the main political authorities are the Parliament and the Senate
Our traditional cuisine is not very healthy, it includes pork-dumplings-sauerkraut or plum dumplings and traditional drinks are beer or wine.

independent nezávislý climate podnebí
consist of skládat se z fortunately naštìstí
famous slavný earthquake zemìtøesení
personality osobnost flood povodeò
neighbour soused densely hustì
hill kopec settlement osídlení
valley údolí inhabitants obyvatelé
plain rovina attract pøitahovat, lákat
lowland nížina chateau zámek
form tvoøit fertile úrodný
natural borderline pøirozená hranice suitable for vhodný pro
peak vrchol agriculture zemìdìlství
mountain range pohoøí wheat pšenice
karst region krasová oblast corn kukuøice
remarkable pozoruhodný mineral resources nerostné suroviny
cave jeskynì coal mining tìžba uhlí
abbys propast nuclear power stations atomová elektrárna
flow téci supply zásobovat
dam pøehrada industry prùmysl
reservoir pøehradní nádrž engineering strojírenství
few málo services služby
lake jezero insurance pojištìní
pond rybník elect volit
such as jako je / jsou cuisine národní kuchynì
spring pramen include zahrnovat
spa láznì pork-dumplings-sauerkraut vepøo-knedlo-zelo
nature reserve chránìná oblast plum švestka

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