Hledejte v chronologicky řazené databázi studijních materiálů (starší / novější příspěvky).

Science, technology and the environment

     In the history of mankind there have been many famous scientists and inventors. Important discoveries have been made in geography, physics, chemistry, biology, medicine, astronomy and so on. There are many technical inventions which make our lives easier and which are necessary for modern life. For example electricity, engines, telephone, computers, Internet - we  can't imagine our lives without these things. And yet, several hundred years ago people didn't know them. So we should mention some important inventions and discoveries made by British and American inventors.
     Isaac Newton (1641-1727) was a mathematician, physicist and an astronomer. He is known for his laws of motion, the idea of gravity and for his experiments with light. It is said that he saw a falling apple and then the idea of gravity came to his mind.
     Michael Faraday is called “the father of modern electricity”. He discovered electromagnetic rotation (it is the basis of every generator used today) and the first dynamo - it is a generator that changes mechanical energy into electrical energy.
    James Watt was a Scottish engineer who improved the steam engine.
     Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone and the gramophone.
   Sir Alexander Fleming is known as “the father of antibiotics” because he discovered penicilin. The production of penicilin started during World War II.
   Thomas Alva Edison was one of the greatest inventors in American history. He patented 1,300 inventions, for example the electric light bulb.
     The greatest inventors are awarded the Nobel prizes.  Alfred Nobel was a Swedish chemist who invented the dynamite and some other explosives. There was a fund established under his will. The distribution of prizes began in 1901 to those who brought greatest benefits to mankind in physics, chemistry, medicine, literature and peace. Winners receive their awards on December 10, which is the anniversary of Nobel's death. Also two Czechs got this prize - Jaroslav Heyrovský for his work in chemistry and Jaroslav Seifert for his beautiful poetry.
     When we speak about modern technologies and inventions, we should mention the use of computers. Computers are used for many things. We use them in the office, because we don't  need too many papers and the work is more effective. Computers are good for entertainment too - we can watch films, play computer games, listen to music, surf the Internet or send e-mails to our friends. The army uses computers for simulations of the war operations , for controlling the rockets and many other things. Computers are good in industry, for example for operating machines or for designing new products.
     Many people look for information on the Internet. The Internet is a source of information that is accessible through a computer. It consists of millions of pages of data about many different subjects. Millions of people surf the Internet every day. If we have the website address of the company or service that we want, we simply type it and the webpage that we want appears automatically on the screen. If we haven't got a particular website address, there are several directories that can help us such as AltaVista or Yahoo!.
     There are also other modern technologies that have been developed recently. Space shuttles, space stations and satellites are used in space exploration. Lasers (beams of highly concentrated light) are used in the production of all kinds of goods as well as in practical medicine and research. But many inventions have destructive effects - for example some weapons used in war or atomic bomb.

     Inventors have developped new technologies to protect our environment. They are for example waste disposal technologies, methods of recycling, new types of fuel and so on. We must protect our environment because it is badly damaged. The air, water and soil are contaminated by chemicals. One form of air pollution is acid rain that causes the destruction of forests. Car exhaust fumes and emissions from power stations pollute the air too. Other problem is thinning of the ozone layer which protects the Earth from the destructive ultraviolet rays. The ozone layer is damaged by chemicals produced by cars and factories. Our ecosystem is also threatened by global warming. Many animals are endangered and they may become extinct. They are killed for their fur or just for fun. The endangered animals are written in so called Red book.

What do you use computer for? Have you got one at home?
What do you think of the Greenpeace movement? Would you join them?
How can you protect the environment in your neighbourhood?

mankind lidstvo recently v nedávné dobì
imagine pøedstavit si space shuttles vesmírné lodì
mention zmínit exploration prùzkum
inventors vynálezci beam paprsek
laws of motion zákony pohybu research výzkum
steam engine parostroj weapon zbraò
light bulb žárovka protect the environment chránit životní prostøedí
award ocenit (udìlit cenu) waste disposal odstraòování odpadu
established under his will ustanovena podle jeho poslední vùle fuel palivo
benefit pøínos air pollution zneèištìní vzduchu
receive obdržet acid rain kyselý d隝
anniversary výroèí cause zpùsobit
entertainment zábava exhaust fumes výfukové plyny
source zdroj power station elektrárna
accessible pøístupný ozone layer ozonová vrstva
consist of skládat se z ultraviolet rays UV paprsky
appear x disappear objevit se x zmizet threaten by ohrozit èím
screen obrazovka global warming globální oteplování
particular konkrétní; urèitý endangered animals ohrožená zvíøata
directory vyhledávaè extinct vyhynulý
develop vyvinout fur kožešina

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