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Great Britain

    Britain lies off the north-west coast of Europe and it is separated from Europe by the English Channel. It consists of two large islands – Great Britain and Ireland (there is situated only part of GB – the Northern Ireland) and about 5,000 smaller ones (the islands that belong to GB are for example the Isle of Man, the Hebrides, the Orkneys, the Shetlands and so on). Its neighbours are Ireland to west and France to south-east. It covers the area of about 245,000 square kilometres and the population is about 58 million people. The United Kingdom of Great Britain consists of four parts: England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. Now it is connected with Europe through the Channel Tunnel.
    Britain is mostly rolling land - in England there are mainly lowlands, but in Scotland the countryside is more  hilly. The Highlands of Scotland are the highest mountains in Britain and there is the highest peak of GB – mountain Ben Nevis – 1,342 m high.The longest rivers are the Severn and the Thames. There are beautiful lake areas – Lake District in England and there are also lakes in Scotland, called „lochs“.
    Bristish Isles have milder climate due to the Gulf Stream which comes from the Gulf of Mexico to Western Europe. Weather in Britain is often cloudy and rainy and it changes very quickly.
    Besides London, which is in the centre of each tourist‘s attention, there are many other fascinating places:
    Oxford and Cambridge are the old university towns.These two ancient seats of learning, dating back to the thirteenth century, were for many hundreds of years the only two universities that England possessed.
    Stratford-upon-Avon is the birthplace of William Shakespeare.
    The English countryside in the south is full of peaceful harbour towns with fishing boats, yachts, cottages and the English like to spend their holidays there. Resorts such as Brighton or Portsmouth have fine sandy beaches and a nice atmosphere.
    Northwest of England is mainly an industrial area. There are the places where in the past the industrial revolution mainly developed – especially textile and coal-mining industries.The big cities there are Birmingham, Liverpool or Manchester.
    Wales is sometimes called the land of castles. The land is full of mystery and beauty. There are snow-capped mountains, green valleys, sea resorts, big cities and little seaside towns. Cardiff is the capital city of  Wales.
    Scotland is a historically and culturally separate country from England. It has its own legal and educational systems and currency (the value is the same but banknotes have different design).The capital city is Edinburgh and the biggest city is Glasgow.
     Scotland is the land of many special traditions - playing the bagpipes, wearing kilts made of tartan and making whisky. Shipbuilding was important industry some time ago, but now  the main industry is  tourism.
    The north of the country is a large and magnificent lake and mountains area. The largest lake is Loch Lomond and Loch Ness is famous for its „Loch Ness Monster“.

lie ležet peaceful mírumilovný
consist of skládat se z harbour, port přístav
belong to náležet někomu full of plný (čeho)
cover pokrývat holiday resorts rekreační střediska
rolling land zvlněná krajina sandy beach písečná pláž
hilly; hill   kopcovitý; kopec atmosphere atmosféra
peak vrcholek, nejvyšší bod develop rozvíjet se
lake jezero coal-mining těžba uhlí
mild climate mírné klima mystery and beauty tajemno a krása
due to díky valley údolí
gulf záliv separate oddělený
The Gulf Stream Golfský proud legal, law právní, právo / zákon
besides kromě currency měna
attention pozornost value hodnota
pay attention! dávejte pozor! same stejný
ancient seats starobylá sídla banknote bankovka
possess vlastnit bagpipes dudy
birthplace místo narození magnificent velkolepý, nádherný

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