Hledejte v chronologicky řazené databázi studijních materiálů (starší / novější příspěvky).

Great Britain

(history, geographical features, system of government, lifestyle, regions, sights, industries)

1) Great Britain
•    official title for union of England, Scotland and Wales (with Northern Ireland creates the United Kingdom, together with Canada, Australia, New Zealand and other territories the Commonwealth of Nations)
•    on British Isles [a:ils]: largest Great Britain and Ireland, smaller Isle of Wight, Isle of Man, Hebrides, Orkneys, Shetlands, Channel Islands (near French coast)
•    four parts: England, Wales, Scotland, Northern Ireland
•    highest peak Ben Nevis in Scotland, 1342m high
•    rivers Severn, Thames (England), Clyde (Scotland)
•    unstable weather, rain common throughout the year, autumn especially unpleasant (rainy, foggy, windy), winter mild, doesn’t snow much; mild climate due to Gulf stream
•    population: 58 million, said to be conservative
•    currency: pound, flag: “Union Jack”, anthem God Save the Queen
•    Englishmen like animals, small houses (made of bricks), old traditions and habits
•    best known newspapers: The Times, The Independent, The Guardian, The Daily Telegraph, The Daily Mirror
•    two big parties: Conservatives, Labour Party
•    constitutional monarchy, Queen Elizabeth II. since 1953
•    Parliament has two houses: the House of Lords (hereditary for life), the House of Commons (63, elections every 5 years), the Prime Minister (Tony Blaire)

2) England and its important places
•    London, capital
•    Oxford and Cambridge, university towns, rowing challenge every year
•    Canterbury, seat of the Archbishop, magnificent cathedral, pilgrims in the Middle Ages, known from Geoffrey Chaucer’s The Canterbury Tales
•    York, residence of the Archbishop of the Anglican Church, cathedral York Minster
•    Winchester, Winchester cathedral from 7th century
•    Stonehenge, historical monument with giant stone circles, more than 3000 years old, purpose unknown, probably religious and astronomical
•    Plymouth, ship port, in 1620 a group of puritans escaped from there in a ship called Mayflower to America
•    Stratford upon Avon, 2nd most visited town in England, Shakespeare’s birthplace
•    Liverpool, the city of Beatles
•    the Lake District, national park since 1951, lakes, i. e. Windermere (16km long, 70km wide)
•    Birmingham, geographical heart of England, 2nd largest, industry (iron ore, coal), the National Exhibition Center for fairs
•    Manchester, coal mining and engineering, textile industries producing woolen textiles called manchester

3) Scotland and its important places
•    Scottish – playing bagpipes, wearing Scottish skirts
•    Glasgow, largest in Scotland, big steelwork, shipyard, International Jazz Festival
•    Edinburgh, capital, Festival of Music and Drama, birthplace of Walter Scott
•    lakes in Scotland are called lochs
•    Loch Ness, famous since 1933 because of the Loch Ness monster Nessie

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