Hledejte v chronologicky řazené databázi studijních materiálů (starší / novější příspěvky).

Health and Diseases, Human Body

1) The human body
•    skeleton = kostra consisting of about 206 bones
-    bones connected by joints = klouby
-    backbone (33 – 34 vertebrae)
-    brainpan = lebka, chest = hrudní koš
-    upper limbs = horní končetiny: arm: shoulder, upper arm, elbow = loket, forearm = předloktí, wrist = zápěstí, hand with fingers
-    fingers: thumb, forefinger, middle-finger, ring-finger, little-finger
-    lower limbs = spodní končetiny: leg: thigh = stehno, knee, calf = lýtko, ankle = kotník, foot with toes
•    muscles – 640 muscles in body
•    skin covers bones, muscles and organs
•    the head
-    brain is in brainpan – centre of thinking
-    forehead = čelo, cheeks = tváře
-    eyes: organs of sight: can be dark, brown, blue, green; people can need spectacles for near (or distant) vision or to be blind
-    nose: organ of smell: for (nasal) breathing = nosní dých.
-    ears: organs of hearing; people can be deaf = hluchý
-    mouth: tongue – organ of taste and talking, in are 32 teeth (children – deciduous = opadávající teeth), is cover by lips for drinking, suck, talk and smile too (you need 36 muscles for one smile)
-    hair: cover of the scalp: can be dark, black, brown, blonde, white in old age; skinhead
-    chin = brada: men: beard, moustache
•    the trunk = trup
-    inside are organs:
-    lungs = plíce: changing oxygen to carbon dioxide
-    heart: pumps fresh blood into the body
-    liver = játra: cleans blood
-    kidneys = ledviny: removes waste liquids = znečištěnou kapalinu from blood
-    stomach: processing of food

2) Diseases
•    child diseases:
-    in history: plague = mor: fever = horečka, shakes, sore joints = bolesní kloubů, bumps = boule like egg
-    pox = neštovice: symptoms: fever, rash = vyrážka, treatment = léčba: liquid powder and tablets
-    flu = chřipka: symptoms: fever, cold, cough = kašel, treatment: gargle = kloktadlo, drops and tablets
-    tonsillitis = angina: symptoms: sore throat = bolení v krku, treatment: gargle and tablets 
•    cough, fever, headache [hedeik]
•    slight illnesses (cold): treating by drinking hot tea, eating lots of fruit with vitamin C, few tablets of aspirin
•    serious troubles (high fever): should go to the doctor’s, wait in waiting room, after examination doctor writes a prescription, go to the chemist’s for medicine (pills, drops, syrup, powder)
•    serious ill or need to be operated: sent for treatment to the hospital
•    childhood illnesses: mumps (příušnice), measles (spalničky), scarlet fever (spála), chicken-pox (plané neštovice)
•    fatal diseases: cancer, heart attack, mental diseases
•    toothache [tu:teik]: go to the dentist, he drills bad tooth, puts a filling in it, sometimes extract the tooth
•    break an arm or a leg: go to the hospital, we are X-rayed, surgeon sets the bones in a plaster

3) First aid procedures & healthy lifestyle
•    injury – “RICE”
o    rest (patient shouldn’t move)
o    ice (reduce blood flow)
o    compress (compress injury with layer of cotton wool)
o    elevate (raise injury above horizontal)
•    breathing problems – “ABC”
o    airway (passage between mouth, nose and throat should be open)
o    breathing (mouth-to-mouth resuscitation – breathing air into patient’s lungs)
o    circulation (blood should circulate from the heart around the body)
•    healthy lifestyle – we shouldn’t: smoke, drink alcohol, take drugs, eat junk food
•    healthy lifestyle – we should: go in for sports, harden (otužovat), take vitamins, have a rest

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